Default File System



Kernel Version

3.10.x-x kernel

2.6.x-x Kernel

Kernel Code Name



General Availability Date of First Major Release

2014-06-09 (Kernel Version 3.10.0-123)

2010-11-09 (Kernel Version 2.6.32-71)

First Process

systemd (process ID 1)

init (process ID 1)


runlevels are called as “targets” as shown below:

runlevel0.target -> poweroff.target
runlevel1.target -> rescue.target
runlevel2.target -> multi-user.target
runlevel3.target -> multi-user.target
runlevel4.target -> multi-user.target
runlevel5.target -> graphical.target
runlevel6.target -> reboot.target

/etc/systemd/system/default.target (this by default is linked to the multi-user target)

Traditional runlevels defined :

runlevel 0
runlevel 1
runlevel 2
runlevel 3
runlevel 4
runlevel 5
runlevel 6

and the default runlevel would be defined in /etc/inittab file.

Host Name Change

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, as part of the move to the new init system (systemd), the hostname variable is defined in /etc/hostname.

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, the hostname variable was defined in the /etc/sysconfig/network configuration file.

Change In UID Allocation

By default any new users created would get UIDs assigned starting from 1000.

This could be changed in /etc/login.defs if required.

Default UID assigned to users would start from 500.

This could be changed in /etc/login.defs if required.

Max Supported File Size

Maximum (individual) file size = 500TB
Maximum filesystem size = 500TB

(This maximum file size is only on 64-bit machines. Red Hat Enterprise Linux does not support XFS on 32-bit machines.)

Maximum (individual) file size = 16TB
Maximum filesystem size = 16TB

(This maximum file size is based on a 64-bit machine. On a 32-bit machine, the maximum files size is 8TB.)

File System Check


XFS does not run a file system check at boot time.


File system check would gets executed at boot time.

Differences Between xfs_repair & e2fsck


– Inode and inode blockmap (addressing) checks.
– Inode allocation map checks.
– Inode size checks.
– Directory checks.
– Pathname checks.
– Link count checks.
– Freemap checks.
– Super block checks.


– Inode, block, and size checks.

– Directory structure checks.

– Directory connectivity checks.

– Reference count checks.

– Group summary info checks.

Difference Between xfs_growfs & resize2fs


xfs_growfs takes mount point as arguments.


resize2fs takes logical volume name as arguments.

Change In File System Structure

/bin, /sbin, /lib, and /lib64 are now nested under /usr.

/bin, /sbin, /lib, and /lib64 are usually under /

Boot Loader

Supports GPT, additional firmware types, including BIOS, EFI and OpenFirmwar. Ability to boot on various file systems (xfs, ext4, ntfs, hfs+, raid, etc)

GRUB 0.97


RHEL7 supports kdump on large memory based systems up to 3 TB

Kdump doesn’t work properly with large RAM based systems.

System & Service Manager


systemd is a system and service manager for Linux, and replaces SysV and Upstart used in previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. systemd is compatible with SysV and Linux Standard Base init scripts.


Enable/Start Service

For RHEL 7, the systemctl command replaces service and chkconfig.

– Start Service : “systemctl start nfs-server.service”.

– Enable Service : To enable the service (example: nfs service ) to start automatically on boot : “systemctl enable nfs-server.service”.

Although one can still use the service and chkconfig commands to start/stop and enable/disable services, respectively, they
are not 100% compatible with the RHEL 7 systemctl command (according to redhat).

Using “service” command and “chkconfig” commands.

– Start Service : “service start nfs” OR “/etc/init.d/nfs start”

– Enable Service : To start with specific runlevel : “chkconfig –level 3 5 nfs on”

Default Firewall

“Firewalld (Dynamic Firewall)”

The built-in configuration is located under the /usr/lib/firewalld directory. The configuration that you can customize is under the /etc/firewalld directory. It is not possible to use Firewalld and Iptables at the same time. But it is still possible to disable Firewalld and use Iptables as before.


Network Bonding

“Team Driver”

– DEVICE=”team0”


– DEVICE=”bond0”

Network Time Synchronization

Using Chrony suite (faster time sync compared with ntpd)

Using ntpd


NFSv2 is no longer supported. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 supports NFSv3, NFSv4.0, and NVSv4.1 clients.


Cluster Resource Manager



Load Balancer Technology

Keepalived and HAProxy


Desktop/GUI Interface

GNOME3 and KDE 4.10


Default Database

MariaDB is the default implementation of MySQL in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7


Managing Temporary Files

RHEL 7 uses systemd-tmpfiles (more structured, and configurable, method to manage tmp files and directories).

Using “tmpwatch”


References :-

What are the file and file system size limitations for Red Hat Enterprise Linux?

All About RHEL 7

Red Hat Enterprise Linux technology capabilities and limits

RHEL 7 Videos



RHEL 7 Extras

Introduction of Docker

Docker is an open source project that automates the deployment of applications inside Linux Containers, and provides the capability to package an application with its runtime dependencies into a container.

Device Hotplug Removed

While RHEL 5/6 has device hotplug support (udev rule that runs the ifup script for newly created devices), it has been disabled for RHEL 7 since it can result in race conditions when initializing newly found.

No 32 Bit ISO Image

No 32 bit ISO for download. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 will only provide 64-bit ISO’s, thus allowing only a 64-bit operating environment. RHEL 7 will not natively support 32-bit hardware.

MemAvailable Added to meminfo

A new entry to the /proc/meminfo file has been introduced to provide the MemAvailable field. MemAvailable provides an estimate of how much memory is available for starting new applications, without swapping. However, unlike the data provided by the Cache or Free fields, MemAvailable takes into account page cache and also that not all reclaimable memory slabs will be reclaimable due to items being in use.

New Ruby and Python Versions

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 provides the latest Ruby version, 2.0.0 and Python 2.7.5.

OpenJDK7 Made Default

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 features OpenJDK7 as the default Java Development Kit (JDK) and Java 7 as the default Java version.

More Powerful NetworkManager

NetworkManager has been significantly enhanced to configure and monitor all the networking features for enterprise class servers and for desktop applications.

For the enterprise data centers, NetworkManager can be used for tasks such as basic networking configuration, network teaming, configuring virtual LANs, bridges, bonds, IPv6, VPNs, assigning interfaces to firewall zones, and others. For desktop servers it can manage wired and wireless networks and VPNs.

Support for 40 Gigabit NICs

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 supports 40 Gigabit network interface controllers (NICs) from multiple hardware partners. This provides support for 40 Gigabit Ethernet link speeds enabling faster network communication for applications and systems. Note that the ethtool utility will report interface link speeds up to 40Gb data rates.

No RHN Classic

RHN Classic is not supported in RHEL7. Older versions supported different subscription management method being used. Red Hat Subcription Management is the only one used by RHEL 7.

OpenSSH – Multiple Required Authentications

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 supports multiple required authentications in SSH protocol version 2 using the AuthenticationMethods option. This option lists one or more comma-separated lists of authentication method names. Successful completion of all the methods in any list is required for authentication to complete.

Minimum Disk Space for Installation of RHEL7

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 now requires at least 1 GB of disk space to install. However, Red Hat recommends a minimum of 5 GB of disk space for all supported architectures.

Implementation of tmpfs file system

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 offers the ability to use /tmp as a mount point for a temporary file storage system (tmpfs).

When enabled, this temporary storage appears as a mounted file system, but stores its content in volatile memory instead of on a persistent storage device. No files in /tmp are stored on the hard drive except when memory is low, in which case swap space is used. This means that the contents of /tmp are not persisted across a reboot.

New Logging Framework

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 introduces a new logging daemon, journald, as part of the move to systemd.

journald captures the following types of message for all services:

– syslog messages
– kernel messages
– initial RAM disk and early boot messages
– messages sent to standard output and standard error output.

Changes to mount options

Unlike ext3 and ext4, the XFS file system enables the user_xattr and acl mount options by default. Ext3 and ext4 file systems do not enable these attributes by default.